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语法总动员词汇点津

发布时间:2017-02-12 点击数: 字号:- 小 + 大【收藏】【打印文章】
 

语法总动员

虚拟语气是中学英语语法中的难点之一,也是高考中的常考点,现将考试中考查虚拟语气的几种情形小结如下:

省略if 的虚拟条件句。在if虚拟条件句中如果含有were, had should,那么 if连词可以省略,但所在句子必须构成部分倒装,即将were, had should 提到主语的前面。如:

1Were I in your position , I would let him know what I thought of him.

   如果我处于你的位置, 我会让他知道我对他的看法。

2Had it not been for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often.

   要不是因为那些免费的票, 我就不会那么经常去看电影的。

3Should it rain tomorrow , the crops would be saved.

如果明天下雨的话,庄稼就得救了。

含蓄虚拟语气。从句中没有if 虚拟条件句,而是通过without , but for, otherwise, or ,but 等词含蓄地把虚拟语气表达出来。如:

1But for the efforts of the captain, the ship would have sunk with all on board.

   如果不是船长的努力, 那艘轮船就会连同船上所有的人一起沉下去。

2Without electricity, human life would be quite different today.

   如果没有电,今天人类的生活就大不相同了。

3. I would have bought the book yesterday, but I didn’t have enough money with me .

  昨天我本来要把那本书买下来的, 但我身上钱不够。

4. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball , otherwise he would have scored a goal . 他在踢球之前犹豫了一会儿,否则他会踢进一球的。

三.混合虚拟语气。if 虚拟条件句中主句和从句的动作的发生或状态的存在的时间不一致,或从句中用虚拟语气而主句用祈使语气或陈述语气。如:

1If you had listened to me in class yesterday, you would know how to do this problem now

如果昨天你上课听我讲了,你现在就会知道怎么做这道题了。

2If he should come , tell him to leave a message.万一他来的话,叫他留言。

四.wish 后宾语从句中的虚拟语气。从句中常用三种动词形式表示虚拟语气:用“had+ 过去分词”表示过去未能实现的愿望;用过去式(如果谓语动词是be动词,则用were)表示现在不可能实现的愿望;用“could /would / might +动词原形”表示将来难以实现的愿望。如:

1I wish (that) I were 10 years younger. 要是我小了10岁那该多好啊。

2I wish you had attended my birthday party yesterday.

我多么希望你昨天参加了我的生日晚会呀。

3I wish I could go/ would be able to go to the moon in a spaceship one day.

我多么希望将来有一天我能坐着宇宙飞船到月球上去呀。

五.if only后状语从句中的虚拟语气。从句中可以表达不可能或难以实现的愿望,其意义和用法几乎和wish 后宾语从句用法一样。如:

1If only I were rich. 我多么希望我很富有。

2If only I had listened to my parents! 要是我那时听了父母的话就好了。

3If only the rain would stop. 要是雨停下来就好了。

六.would rather后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气。常用过去式表示宁愿某人现在或将来做某事,用“had+ 过去分词”表示宁愿某人过去做了某事。如:

1I’d rather (that )you hadn’t told me about it. 我倒宁愿你没把这件事告诉我。

2I’d rather you came to see me tomorrow. 我倒宁愿你明天来看我。

3I’d rather you told the truth. 我宁愿你说实话。

七.It’s time (that) 后的定语从句中的虚拟语气。常用过去式表示虚拟语气。如:

It’s time these two countries ended their war.该是这两个国家结束战争的时候了。

八.as if/ though (似乎,仿佛)后的方式状语从句中的虚拟语气。常用三种动词形式表示虚拟语气:用“had+ 过去分词”表与过去事实相反;用过去式(如谓语动词是be动词,则用were)表与现在事实相反;用“could /would / might +动词原形”表与将来事实相反。如:

1She talks as if she knew everything.她讲起话来仿佛每样事都懂。

2Mrs. Black treats the boy as if he were her own child .

布莱克夫人对待那个小男孩就好像是她自己的小孩一样。

3He behaves as though nothing had happened. 他一举一动仿佛什么事都没发生似的。

九.order/ command(命令), advise/ suggest/ recommend/ propose(建议), insist(坚持), ask/ require/request/demand(要求)等动词后的宾语从句,以及与它们相关的其它名词性从句中的虚拟语气。常用should + 动词原形表示虚拟语气,其中的情态动词should可以省略。如:

1He suggested that we( should ) practise speaking English as often as possible .

他建议我们尽可能经常练习说英语。

He made a suggestion that we( should ) practise speaking English as often as possible .

His suggestion was that we( should ) practise speaking English as often as possible

It was suggested that we( should ) practise speaking English as often as possible

但当suggest不表示建议而表示暗示或表明,当insist不表示坚持要求而表示坚持认为时它们后面所接宾语从句不用虚拟语气而用陈述语气。如:

2The surprised expression on his face suggested that he hadn’t expected that.

他脸上惊讶的神情表明他没有预料到那一点。

3He insisted that he hadn’t stolen the car and that he (should) be set free at once.

他坚持认为他没有偷那辆汽车,并且坚持要求立即把他释放。

十.It is / was important/ essential/ vital/ significant/ necessary / strange/ surprising等形容词后面的 that引导的主语从句中虚拟语气。常用should+ 动词原形表示虚拟语气,其中should可以省略。如:

It is strange that such a thing should happen in our school.

奇怪,这样的事居然发生在我们学校里。

语法专练

下面的句子里都只有一处错误,请在错误的地方下面划线,并将正确答案写到右边括号中。

1.I wish I attended the lecture yesterday.                                 (        )  

2. If only I didn’t lose my watch !                                      (        )

3.I’d rather you don’t do anything about it for the time being.                (        )

4. Would it rain tomorrow , we’d have to put off our visit to the factory.        (        )

5. His advice that we will wait for Tom to come back is reasonable .           (        )

6. I am glad I went over all my notes, otherwise I would fail in the exam.       (        )

7.It is high time that the government will take measures to protect the rare birds. (         )

8. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it is broken.         (        )

9. If Tom received six more votes last month , he would be our chairman now.   (        )

10.I would buy you a nice present , but I was short of money at that time.       (        )

答案:

1attended 改为had attended   2didn’t lose 改为hadn’t lost    3don’t 改为didn’t        

4Would改为Should  5will 改为should 或去掉will 6would fail改为would have failed

7will take 改为took 8is broken 改为were broken  9received 改为had received

10would buy改为 would have bought.

词汇点津

                                  remind的用法

remind是及物动词,意为提醒;使想起,后跟名词或代词作宾语,主要有下列几种用法:

1. 表示“使想起”,常见短语是remind sb. of / about sth.。如:

What he said just now reminded me of that American professor.

刚才他说的话使我想起了那个美国教授。

This reminds me what we did together during our holidays

这使我想起了我们在假日里一起做的事。

2. 表示“提醒”,常见短语remind sb. to do sth. ,其意思是指提醒某人做某事 。如:

Please remind me to post the letter on the way to school.

请提醒我在上学的路上把信寄了。

Would you please remind him that our meeting has been put off?

请你提醒他我们的会议推迟了好吗?

扩展1. reminder n. 提醒物. 如:

His presence was a constant reminder of what she had lost.

他的存在时常让她记起她所失去的一切。

        2. recall , call up remind的异同点:三词都有“想起”之意,但recall call up的意思是“回忆,回想起”,其主语通常是sth.,而remind的意思是“使某人想起, 提醒”,其主语通常是sb. 如:

This picture calls up/recalls my memories of childhood.这张照片使我想起了我的童年。

=This picture reminds me of my childhood.

根据所给中文完成下列句子。

1.刚才,史密斯夫人提醒她的儿子放学以后去商店。

  Just now ,Mrs. Smith ________ her son ________________ to the store after school.

2. 音乐常常让我们回想起过去的事件。

Music often ________ us _______ events in the past.

3. 这首歌使我想起在乡下度过的那些艰难的日子。

The song ___________ me_________ the hard days spent in the country? 

4. 这部有关海外学生的影片使我回想起我在美国的生活。

The movie about overseas students _____________ memories of my life in America.

break down 常见用法

1.用作不及物动词,意思是“(机器等)出故障,抛锚”。如:

   On our way home , our car must break down.

在我们回家的路上,我们的小汽车偏偏出了故障。

2. 用作不及物动词,意思是“(和谈,计划等)失败”如:

Your plan has broken down. What a pity! 你的计划失败了, 真遗憾!

Why did the peace talks break down?为什么和谈失败了?

3. 用作不及物动词,意思是“(身体,精神的)垮掉 ”。如:

After a long time of hard workhe almost broke down.

长时间艰苦工作之后,他的身体几乎垮了。
   4. 用作及物或不及物动词,意思是“分解”
     It is not easy to break down plastics and other similar rubbish.

塑料和其他类似垃圾不容易分解。

扩展 其它由break所构成的动词短语有: break up 解散,驱散,分手。break invi.)破门而入,打断(谈话).break into(vt.) 破门而入, 突然……起来, 打断。break out (战争,争吵,火灾等)爆发,突然发生。break through 突破
break的动词短语的适当形式填空:
1. Don't _________ when we are talking.

2.Tom ________ and wept when his mother died.

3.He has just _______ with his girlfriend.

4.The Smiths had their house _______ while they were away on holiday.

if only & only if

if only 主要有两种用法。

1 if only 用于虚拟语气中,它虽然是从属连词,但它引导的从句却能单独成句,且能表达一种不能实现或难以实现的愿望,意思是“要是……该多好” 其用法相当于I wish,但语气更强。句后用句号或感叹号皆可;另外,if only也可以引导虚拟条件状语从句。如:

If only I had taken his advice! 要是我听从了他的建议就好了!

If only the rain would stop.  要是雨停下来就好了。

If only I were as clever as you!要是我像你一样聪明该多好啊!

If only I had more money, I could buy some books.

要是我的钱再多一些,我就能买几本书。

If only you hadn’t made that noise, they would not have known we were here.

 如果你当时不出声的话,他们是不会知道我们在这里的。

2.if only 用于引导真实条件状语从句,意思是“只要”。如:

If only it clears up, we’ll set off. 只要天放晴,我们就出发。

He will succeed if only he does his best. 只要他尽其全力,他就会成功。

only if 用来连接条件状语从句,意思是“只有---(才)---”,而且当only if 连接条件状语从句置于句首时,主句应构成部分倒装。如:

I told him he would succeed only if he tried hard. 我告诉他,只有努力才能成功。

Only if I get a job will I have enough money to go to school.

我只有找到了工作才有足够的钱上学。

选择if only only if填空。

1. __________ I had another chance.

2. _________ they were here now, we would be able to celebrate their wedding anniversary.

3. ____________a teacher has given permission is a student allowed to leave the classroom.

remind用法答案: 1.reminded , to go  2.reminds, of /about  3.reminds/ reminded , of /about

4.recalls/ recalled /calls up / called up

break down用法答案:1. break in  2.broken down  3.broken up  4. broken into

if only only if用法差异填空答案: 1. If only  2. If only   3. Only if

(编辑:tzezjrb)

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