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英语动词各种语法形式

发布时间:2010-07-16 点击数: 字号:- 小 + 大【收藏】【打印文章】

英语动词各种语法形式

泰州第二中学  韩宏华

一、动词形式分类

动词

谓语动词

非谓语动词

时态:16,常用8

不定式:具体/暂时/未来

语态:主动和被动

  :主动/进行

  :被动/完成

语气:陈述/祈使/虚拟

动名词:抽象性/习惯性

大部分英语语法书都把现在分词和动名词统称为-ing形式。要求:

1.分清并掌握延续性动词与非延续性(短暂或瞬间)动词,因为非延续性动词在进行时态和完成时态中使用会受到一定的限制。

2.非谓语动词是学习的一大难点,除了理解之外,还要记住常用动词后面可接非谓语的什么形式。

动词时态

被动语态

常用8

助动词

常用7

结构be+过分

一般现在时

do/does

一般现在时

am/is/are+…

一般过去时

did

一般过去时

was/were+…

一般将来时

will

一般将来时

will be+…

现在进行时

be

现在进行时

be+being+…

过去进行时

was/were

 

 

现在完成时

have/has

现在完成时

have been+…

过去完成时

had

过去完成时

had been+…

过去将来时

would

带情态动词

+be+…

提醒:主从句时态要一致!

被动语态使用注意点:

1. 否定词not或时间副词often等须放在被动语态结构中第一个助动词后面。

2. 被动语态中by+sb./with+sth. 如:

This picture is being painted by Tom.

The hall was filled with smoke.

如果bywith都用,则含义不同:

He was killed by a rock. (可能是山上滚下来的石头)

He was killed with a rock.(可能是别人用石头砸死的)

3.下列动词常不用被动语态:have(有),let(让)

4.      表示状态的动词:equal等于, fit适合, hold容纳, join参加, mean意味着, last(持续), cost花费, wish愿望, look like看起来像, belong to属于, consist of组成

5.      leaveenterreachreturn等位移的及物性动词的宾语是地点、或组织的词汇,不能用被动语态。

6.      固定性的动词短语中的名词不能抽出来改成被动句,如:keep one’s words, make up one’s mind, do one’s best, take one’s place, speak one’s mind, keep watch, lose courage/heart, shake hands等。

7.在句型结构sth.+动词+其它中,动词用主动表示被动,且常用一般现在时,不用进行时。如

This kind of cloth washes very well.

Your pen writes quite smoothly.

Each duck sells five dollars.

8.被动语态与系表结构形式相似,含义不同。系表结构(包括get+过去分词)不带by短语表示主语的特点或状态。如

The book is well written. 系表     The book was written by Lu Xun. (被动)

9.当非谓语动词的逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的承受者时,非谓语动词就须用被动表示。

二、非谓语动词

不定式作宾语时要注意

1.只接不定式的动词:

ask, agree, promise, care, dare, prepare, choose, elect, expect, demand, want, wish, decide, fail, manage, help, offer, plan, pretend, hope, refuse, learn,…. eg:

   He refused to lend me his bicycle.

2.可接不定式和动名词的动词:

begin, start, like, love, hate, continue, prefer…. E.g.:

  I prefer to go/going there by air.

3.可接不定式和动名词其含义不同的动词:

forget, remember, try, regret, go on, mean

4.不定式作宾语前常要加一个疑问词的及物动词:

tell, advise, show, teach, learn, know, decide, find out… e.g.:

  I don’t know how to cook.

  Please tell me where to have the meeting.

He didn’t know whether to laugh or to cry when he heard the words. (不能换成if)

5.介词之后一般要接疑问词接不定式,butexpect可直接用,但往往是在否定句中,而当前面的动词含do/does/did/to do时,不定式符号to要省略(but前有do, 后无to; but前无do, 后有to); ratherthan(宁愿而不愿/句首时:与其宁可)也常接省略to的不定式:

Marx gave some advice on how to learn English.

  They could do nothing but give in.

  The enemy had no choice but to give in.

  I would rather ride than walk.

Rather than walk I would.

Rather than get money in such a dishonest way, Simon would beg in the street.

不定式作定语要注意4

1)要位于被修饰的词之后;

2)不及物动词后面应有必要的介词;She is very nice person to work with.

3)句中有不定式的逻辑主语时,用主动语态表示被动;

I have a letter to write.

Please give me something nice to eat.

4)在there+be句型中,也可用被动式的不定式;但征求对方是否有事需请求者去做时,用被动式的不定式。如:

There is a meeting to attend.

Would you have a letter to be typed, Manager?

不定式作状语时要注意4

1. in order toso as to在位置上的不同

2. so+/+as tosuch+名词+as to用法上的区别

3. /+enough+to do的含义

4. too+/+to do的肯定与否定含义(常由句子内容所表达的意境而定)。如

She is too anxious to know the examination results. (肯定)

He is too short to be a basketball player.

V+ing 形式

1. 只接-ing作宾语的动词:mind, enjoy, imagine, keep, practise, suggest, miss, consider, appreciate, risk, finish, excuse, delay, dislike, discontinue, give up, look forward to,…

2. begin, start, like 等动词后面均可接不定式或v-ing形式,但这些动词本身已经是-ing形式的话,后面就改成to do形式;

People are beginning to realize just how serious the whole situation is.

3. 及物动词want/need/require等的主语是sth时,表示“需要”可接v-ing的主动式或被动的不定式(to be done

The floor requires washing (to be washed).

4. can’t help, can’t resist, give up, insist on, burst out, feel like, succeed in, set out, think of, stick to, object to, admit to, be/get used to短语动词后常用v-ing形式;

5. 几乎所有的介词都接v-ing形式作宾语,在下列动词短语中介词还可省略:

be busy (in), spend (in), have some trouble/difficulty (in), prevent…(from)…

过去分词

1. 过去分词作宾补表示其动作已完成或结束, 并有被动含义.

2. V-ing形式作宾补表示其动作与谓语动作同时发生或进行.

3. 不定式作宾补, 强调发生动作这一事实, 也表明动作已结束 (动作的全过程).

4. 并立动作作宾补且有动作先后顺序时需用不定式.

The teacher found the composition written in very poor English.

I found him doing his homework. =I found that he was doing his homework.

I saw him come downstairs. =He came downstairs and I saw it.

I saw him come in and sit down.

过去分词作定语与-ing作定语含义不同. :

a developing country=a country that is developing

a developed country =a country that has been developed

分词 动名词 不定式作表语的区别

分 词

主要是表示主语的特点和所处的状态,主语和表语的位置不可对换。

动名词/

不定式

主要是表示主语的主要内容,主语和表语的位置常可对换。

分词 动名词 不定式作定语的区别

现在分词

单个分词放在名词前面,短语在后面,与被修饰的名词有逻辑上的主谓关系,且表达主动与进行,进行与被动同时表达形式:being done

过去分词

完成与被动,用于在谓语动词动作发生之前或没有一定的时间性。

 

形式

位置

重读

内容

时间

分词

单个或分词短语

在被修饰词前或后

两者均重读

相当于定语从句,说明动作或特征

主动式与谓语同时发生,被动的后于发生

动名词

单个形式

在被修饰词前

动名词重读

表示被修饰词的用途、作用,不存在主谓关系

 

不定式

单个或不定式短语

在被修饰词后

 

与被修饰词有主谓、动宾、说明等关系,动作性强。

同时/滞后:一般式和进行式;超前:完成式

三、虚拟语气

    

if条件句

主句 (+动原)

反现在

过去式/were

should/would

could/might

If it rained,

I wouldn’t go.

反过去

过去完成式

+现在完成

If you had got up earlier last Sunday,

You would have caught the train

反将来

a)过去式(一般)

b)should+动原(最大)

c)were to+动原(最小)

+动原

 If you came soon,

We would see a film.

If you should meet him,

You would say hello to him.

If you were to visit the school tomorrow,

You could see me.

错综时间

      过    去

   现 在 或 将 来

If you had followed it,

You would be all right now.

含蓄条件句

A

B

C

with/without短语或分词短语或独立结构

使用连词:otherwise, in case, but for, but that, on condition (that), supposing (that)  suppose (that), provided (that) providing (that), as long as, unless, 表示虚拟

通过上下文表示虚拟。

E.g.:

1. I might not have passed the examination without your help. =I might not have passed the examination if you hadn’t helped me.

2. Having known in time, I could have told you. =If I had known in time, we could have told you.

3. I had my hair cut off and sold it because I couldn’t have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. =If I hadn’t given you a present, I ….

4. I was busy last week; otherwise I would have come to see you. =I was busy last week. If I had not been busy last week, I would have come to see you.

5. I would have called you if I had known your telephone number. But I forgot your telephone number.

虚拟语气可用于下列从句

1.      宾语从句:

a) 在建议/要求/命令/欲望后的宾语从句中(should+)动原;

这些动词有advise, suggest(建议,不作“表明/暗示”), insist(坚持要求/建议,不作“坚持说/认为”), demand, request, require, desire, propose, urge

b) wish that+S+could/would+动原:与将来愿望相反

       that + S+ 式:与过去愿望相反

       that + S+ 式:      与现在或当时愿望相反

2. 主语从句用于下列句式

a) It is ++that + S+(should)+动原。形容词有

important/necessary/urgent/natural/strange/better/surprising/…

b) It’s +名词+that + S+(should+)动原。名词有

a pity/a shame/an honour/no wonder/…

c) It is +过去分词+that + S+(should+)动原。过去分词有

suggested/ordered/decided/required/…

3. 表语从句和同位语从句表示要求、建议、命令等意义的名词,后面接表语从句或同位语从句中用should+动原。这类名词有:

advice, demand, idea, order, plan, propose, suggestion, request

4. 其它类从句在下列句型中使用

It is/was (high) time that S+should +动原/(=+过去式)

as if/as though +过去式或过去完成式

in order that/so that +might/could动原

would rather(that)+过去式(表示现在或将来愿望)

              +过去完成式(表示过去愿望

例如

1. He ordered that the experiment (should) be carried out at once.

(His pale face suggested that he was ill.)

2. He insisted that he hadn’t stolen the money. So he insisted that he (should) be set free.

3. I wish it were spring all the year round.

4. We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.

5. I wish you could go with us.

6. It’s quite natural that he (should) be sent to hospital at once.

7. It’s a pity that you (should) be late for the meeting. (真遗憾...)

8. It has been decided that the meeting should be put off to next Sunday.

9. His idea is that we should discuss the report.

他的意见是我们应该讨论一下这份报告。

10. We all agree to his suggestion that we (should) go to Beijing.

11. It’s time that we should have (=had) a class.

12. He speaks as if he were an Englishman.

13. You are talking (talk/talked) as though you had seen them.

你谈起来好象真的见过他们似的。

14. The teacher speaks slowly in class in order that we can/might understand him. 老师在课堂上说话很慢,以便我们能听懂。

15. I would rather you came tomorrow. 我倒希望你明天来

16.I would rather you had gone there. 你要是去那里就好了。

2003.5.3

 

(编辑:韩宏华)

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