2. 被动语态中by+sb./with+sth. 如：
This picture is being painted by Tom.
The hall was filled with smoke.
He was killed by a rock. （可能是山上滚下来的石头）
He was killed with a rock.（可能是别人用石头砸死的）
4. 表示状态的动词：equal（等于）, fit（适合）, hold（容纳）, join（参加）, mean（意味着）, last（持续）, cost（花费）, wish（愿望）, look like（看起来像）, belong to（属于）, consist of（由…组成）等
6. 固定性的动词短语中的名词不能抽出来改成被动句，如：keep one’s words, make up one’s mind, do one’s best, take one’s place, speak one’s mind, keep watch, lose courage/heart, shake hands等。
This kind of cloth washes very well.
Your pen writes quite smoothly.
Each duck sells five dollars.
The book is well written. （系表） The book was written by Lu Xun. (被动)
ask, agree, promise, care, dare, prepare, choose, elect, expect, demand, want, wish, decide, fail, manage, help, offer, plan, pretend, hope, refuse, learn,…. eg:
He refused to lend me his bicycle.
begin, start, like, love, hate, continue, prefer…. E.g.:
I prefer to go/going there by air.
forget, remember, try, regret, go on, mean
tell, advise, show, teach, learn, know, decide, find out… e.g.:
I don’t know how to cook.
Please tell me where to have the meeting.
He didn’t know whether to laugh or to cry when he heard the words. (不能换成if)
5．介词之后一般要接疑问词接不定式，but和expect可直接用，但往往是在否定句中，而当前面的动词含do/does/did/to do时，不定式符号to要省略(but前有do, 后无to; but前无do, 后有to); rather（…）than（宁愿…而不愿/句首时：与其…宁可）也常接省略to的不定式:
Marx gave some advice on how to learn English.
They could do nothing but give in.
The enemy had no choice but to give in.
I would rather ride than walk.
Rather than walk I would.
Rather than get money in such a dishonest way, Simon would beg in the street.
2）不及物动词后面应有必要的介词；She is very nice person to work with.
I have a letter to write.
Please give me something nice to eat.
There is a meeting to attend.
Would you have a letter to be typed, Manager?
1. in order to与so as to在位置上的不同；
2. so+形/副+as to与such+名词+as to用法上的区别
3. 形/副+enough+to do的含义
4. too+形/副+to do的肯定与否定含义（常由句子内容所表达的意境而定）。如：
She is too anxious to know the examination results. (肯定)
He is too short to be a basketball player.
1. 只接-ing作宾语的动词：mind, enjoy, imagine, keep, practise, suggest, miss, consider, appreciate, risk, finish, excuse, delay, dislike, discontinue, give up, look forward to,…
2. begin, start, like 等动词后面均可接不定式或v-ing形式，但这些动词本身已经是-ing形式的话，后面就改成to do形式；
People are beginning to realize just how serious the whole situation is.
3. 及物动词want/need/require等的主语是sth时，表示“需要”可接v-ing的主动式或被动的不定式（to be done）
The floor requires washing (to be washed).
4. 在can’t help, can’t resist, give up, insist on, burst out, feel like, succeed in, set out, think of, stick to, object to, admit to, be/get used to等短语动词后常用v-ing形式；
be busy (in), spend (in), have some trouble/difficulty (in), prevent…(from)…等
1. 过去分词作宾补表示其动作已完成或结束, 并有被动含义.
3. 不定式作宾补, 强调发生动作这一事实, 也表明动作已结束 (动作的全过程).
The teacher found the composition written in very poor English.
I found him doing his homework. =I found that he was doing his homework.
I saw him come downstairs. =He came downstairs and I saw it.
I saw him come in and sit down.
a developing country=a country that is developing
a developed country =a country that has been developed
分词 动名词 不定式作表语的区别：
分词 动名词 不定式作定语的区别：
1. I might not have passed the examination without your help. =I might not have passed the examination if you hadn’t helped me.
2. Having known in time, I could have told you. =If I had known in time, we could have told you.
3. I had my hair cut off and sold it because I couldn’t have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. =If I hadn’t given you a present, I ….
4. I was busy last week; otherwise I would have come to see you. =I was busy last week. If I had not been busy last week, I would have come to see you.
5. I would have called you if I had known your telephone number. But I forgot your telephone number.
这些动词有：advise, suggest（建议，不作“表明/暗示”）, insist（坚持要求/建议，不作“坚持说/认为”）, demand, request, require, desire, propose, urge
b) wish that+S+could/would+动原：与将来愿望相反；
that + S+过 去 完 成 式：与过去愿望相反；
that + S+过 去 式： 与现在或当时愿望相反；
a) It is +形+that + S+(should)+动原。形容词有：
b) It’s +名词+that + S+(should+)动原。名词有：
a pity/a shame/an honour/no wonder/…
c) It is +过去分词+that + S+(should+)动原。过去分词有：
advice, demand, idea, order, plan, propose, suggestion, request
It is/was (high) time that S+should +动原/(=+过去式)
as if/as though +过去式或过去完成式
in order that/so that +might/could动原
1. He ordered that the experiment (should) be carried out at once.
(His pale face suggested that he was ill.)
2. He insisted that he hadn’t stolen the money. So he insisted that he (should) be set free.
3. I wish it were spring all the year round.
4. We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.
5. I wish you could go with us.
6. It’s quite natural that he (should) be sent to hospital at once.
7. It’s a pity that you (should) be late for the meeting. (真遗憾...)
8. It has been decided that the meeting should be put off to next Sunday.
9. His idea is that we should discuss the report.
10. We all agree to his suggestion that we (should) go to Beijing.
11. It’s time that we should have (=had) a class.
12. He speaks as if he were an Englishman.
13. You are talking (talk/talked) as though you had seen them.
14. The teacher speaks slowly in class in order that we can/might understand him. 老师在课堂上说话很慢，以便我们能听懂。
15. I would rather you came tomorrow. 我倒希望你明天来。
16.I would rather you had gone there. 你要是去那里就好了。