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高二英语语法——省略句

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高二英语语法——省略句

在英语语言中,为了使语言简洁明了,重点突出或上下文紧密相连,可以省去某些句子成分而保持句子原意不变,这种语言现象称之为省略。现就英语中的种种省略现象分析如下:
 
一、并列复合句中的省略

在并列句中后边的分句可以省略与前边分句中相同的成分。如:
a) The boy picked up a coin in the road and (the boy ) handed it to a policeman.
这个男孩在马路上拾起一枚硬币并把他交给了警察。

b) Your advice made me happy but(your advice made) Tom angry .
你的建议使我高兴但使汤姆生气。

c) Tom must have been playing basketball and Mary (must have been)doing her homework.
汤姆肯定一直在打篮球,玛丽一直在写作业。

d) Gao Xiumin was born in 1959 and Fu Biao (was born) in 1963.
高秀敏出生于1959年,傅彪出生于1963年。

二、主从复合句中的省略
1.状语从句中的省略
  一般说来省略现象多出现在下列五种状语从句中:1)由 when ,while ,as ,before, after , till, until, once等引导的时间状语从句;2)由whether ,if , unless 等引导的条件状语从句;3)由though , although ,even if ,whatever等引导的让步状语从句;4)由 as ,than 等引导的比较状语从句;5)由as, as if , as though 等引导的方式状语从句。上述状语从句在省略时应遵循下面原则:

1)
当状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致时,可以省略状语从句的主语和系动词be,这时从句中可出现如下结构:(1) 连词(as, as if , once+ 名词;  (2) 连词( though, whether , when+形容词;(3) 连词(whether, as if ,while )+介词短语;(4) 连词(when , while , though )+ 现在分词; (5) 连词(when ,if ,even if ,unless ,once ,until, than , as ) + 过去分词; (6) 连词(as if ,as though ) + 不定式。如:
a) Once (he was)a worker ,Pang Long now becomes a famous singer .
庞龙曾经是个工 人,现在变成一位著名的歌手。
b) Work hard when (you are) young ,or you'll regret.
趁年轻要努力学习,要不然你会后悔的。
 
c) He looked everywhere as if (he was)in search of something .
他到处看似乎在找什么东西。

d) While (he was) holding talks with President Hu Jintao ,US President George W. Bush thanked China for its important role in the Six-Party Talks.
美国总统布什在与胡锦涛主席会谈时,感谢中国在六方会谈中起的重要作用。 
e) The exhibition is more interesting than (it was) expected .
这次展览比被预料的有趣的多。

f) Olympic gold medallist hurdler Liu Xiang opened his lips as if (he were) to speak
。奥林匹克金牌获得者跨栏运动员刘翔张开嘴好像要说什么。

注意:
1)
当从句的主语和主句的宾语一致时,间或也有这样的省略,如:
Her father told her to be careful when (she was)crossing the street.
当她过马路时父亲告诉她要当心。
2)
当从句的主语是 it,谓语动词中又含有系动词be 时,可以把it和系动词be一起省略。此时构成连词(if , unless ,when , whenever)+形容词的结构。如:
Unless (it is) necessary ,you'd better not refer to the dictionary.
如果没有必要,你最好不要查字典。

2.定语从句中的省略
1
) 一般说来,在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词 that ,which , whom 可以省略;如:

 Is this reason (that) he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?
这就是他在会上解释他工作中粗心的原因吗?(2002上海春季)
  而在非限制性定语从句中作宾语的关系代词 which , whom 不可以省略。试比较:

 Tom (whom) you saw yesterday fell ill.( whom
可以省) 你昨天见到的汤姆病倒了。
 Tom , whom you saw yesterday ,fell ill. ( whom
不可以省) 汤姆病倒了,你昨天见到他了。
2
)在口语和非正式用语中,关系副词when ,where , why 经常用that 来代替,甚至还可省略。如:

 a) This is the first time (when/that)he had trouble with the boss.
这是他第一次麻烦老板。
 b) He wants to find a good place (where/that) we can have a picnic during the
golden week holiday .他想找一个能在黄金周期间野餐的好地方。

 c) Could you tell us the reason (why/that)he was so unhappy ?
你能告诉我们他为什么如此不高兴吗?
3
)当先行词为表示方式的 the way 时 ,从句不能用 how 来引导 ,应该用that in which ,或将它们全部省略。如:
 I don't like the way (that/in which) you laugh at her.
我不喜欢你嘲笑他的行为。

3
.宾语从句中的省略

1
)在及物动词后面所接的宾语从句中,连词that 一般可以省略;但如果及物动词后面是由that引导的两个或两个以上的并列的宾语从句 ,那么只有第一个that可以省略。如:
 a) I think (that) the reform of the renminbi's exchange rate is necessary.
我认为人民币兑换率的改革是必要的。
 b) He said (that)the Anti-secession law had been passed and that President Hu Jintao had signed a presidential order
他说《 反分裂国家法》已被通过,而且胡锦涛主席已签署了主席令。

2
)由 which , when ,where , how, why 引导的 宾语从句,可以全部或部分省略。如:
 a) I know that NBA star Yao Ming will come to our city but I don
t know when (he will come to our city).我知道NBA明星要到我们城市来但我不知道他什么时候来。

 b) He wants to move abroad but his parents wonders why (he wants to move abroad)
他想搬迁到国外但他的父母想知道为什么。
4
.在与suggest ,request ,order ,advise 等词相关的名词性从句中,须用虚拟语气形式“should +动词原形”,should可以省略。如:

Chirac, President of the Republic of France suggested that the China-France Culture Year (should) last long in various forms.
法国总统希拉克建议中法文化年以各种各样的形式长期持续。

5
.主句省略多用于句首。如:

 (It is a ) Pity that I didn
t go to Mary's birthday party yesterday.很遗憾,我昨天没有去参加玛丽的生日聚会。
6
.在答语中,主句可全部省略。如:
 
Why were you absent from school last Friday ?(I was absent from school)Because my mother was ill. —上周五你为什么没有上学? —因为我妈妈病了。
 

三、简单句中的省略
1.省略主语
1
)祈使句中的主语通常被省略 如:

 (You) Open the door,
 please. 请开一下门。
2)
其它省略主语多限于现成的说法 如:

 a) (I) Thank you for your help
谢谢你的帮助。

 b) (It)Doesn
t matter.没关系。

2
.省略主谓语或主谓语的一部分 如:

 a) (There is) No smoking.
 禁止抽烟
 b) (Is there)anything else ?
还有其他事吗 ?

 c) (You come)This way please.
请这边走。
 d) (Will you) Have a smoke ?
抽烟吗 ?

3
.省略宾语 如:

 
Do you know Mr. Li ? 你认识李先生吗?— I dont know (him.) 我不认识他
4
.省略表语 如:
 
Are you thirsty ? 30岁了吗? Yes , I am (thirsty). 是的,我是。
5
.同时省略几个成分 如:
 a)
Are you feeling better now? 你觉得好些了吗 ?—(I am feeling ) Much better (now) 好多了。
 b) (I wish) Good luck (to you) .
祝你好运/祝你顺利。

四、动词不定式省略,只保留to 的场合
1.不定式作某些动词的宾语时,这些动词常见的有:love, like, care, wish, hope, expect, prefer, refuse, mean , try , oblige , advise , persuade , agree , want , afford , forget , remember , try , manage等。如:
 a)
You should have thanked her before you left . I meant to ,but when I was leaving I couldnt find her anywhere.—你本该在离开前谢谢她。—我本打算这么做,但当我就要离开的时候我却找不到她了。(2000上海春)
 b) You can do it this way if you like to .
如果你想做,你可以这么做。
2
.不定式作某些动词的宾语补足语或主语补足语时,这些动词常见的有:ask , tell ,advise, force, persuade, wish, allow, permit , forbid ,expect, order ,warn 等。如 :

 a) The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street ,but his mother told him not to.
男孩想在街上骑他的自行车,但他母亲不让。
(NMET1995)
 b) She wants to come but her parents won
t allow her to (come). 她想来,可是她父母不让。

3
.不定式在句中作某些形容词的状语时,常见的形容词有:happy, glad ,eager , anxious , willing , ready 等。如:

 — I will be away on a business trip .Could you mind looking after my cat ?       Not at all.I would be happy to (look after your cat). —我要出差,你能帮我照顾一下我的猫吗?—没关系,我很愿意。

4
.不定式作某些复合谓语时,常见结构如:be able to, be going to, have to, ought to, used to等。如:
 He doesnt like fish but he used to 他现在不喜欢吃鱼,但过去喜欢。

五、动词不定式to 的省略
1.主语部分有to do ,系动词 is was 时 ,作表语的不定式通常省去to。如:
 The only thing you have to do is press the button.你必须做的惟一事情是按按钮。

2
.作介词but ,expect ,besides 的宾语,前面又有实意动词 do时,不定式通常省去to. 如:

 He said that Chen Shuibian had nothing to do except push a pro-independence timetable.他说陈水扁除了推进支持“独立”的时间表外,什么也没有做。
3
.主语部分暗含to do,表语中的不定式通常省去to。如:

 All I want (to do) is go to school and study hard .我想要(做)的就是上学,努力学习。
4
.当两个或多个不定式并列时,其后的不定式符号可以省略,但有对比关系时不可省略。如:

 It is easier to say than to do . 说起来容易,做起来难。
5
.在would ratherthan… 等结构中,不定式符号常常要省略. 如:
 I would rather stay at home than go to see a film.我宁愿呆在家也不愿去看电影。
6
.在see ,watch ,notice ,hear, listen to ,look at ,feel ,have, make, let ,observe 等词后作宾语补足语时省略不定式符号towhy (not) do 结构 中, 不定式不带to。如:

 a) I saw her enter the room. 我看见她进入了房间
 b) Why not join us ?为什么不加入到我们的行列里来呢?

六.其他一些省略结构
1.名词所有格修饰的名词,若表示住宅、店铺、教堂或上下文已暗示或明确指出过的事物时,常常可以省略。如:
 We spent the weekend at the Mary's. 我们在玛丽家过的周末。
2
What how引导的感叹句中,常可省略主语 it be动词 如:

 a) What a wonderful victory (it is ) for Tom !
这对Tom来说是个多么大的胜利呀!
 b) How beautiful (it is ) to be treated like a normal child.
被当作一个正常孩子对待对他而言是多么美妙的一件事呀。

(编辑:韩宏华)

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