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中学英语中的修辞及运用意义

发布时间:2009-10-12 点击数: 字号:- 小 + 大【收藏】【打印文章】

 

任何语言都有修辞,英语当然不能例外。在中学英语教学中,修辞显然不是教学重点,但把它束之高阁,甚至在教学中遇到一些常用修辞现象不向学生讲一讲也是欠妥的。我认为,在教学中,如果遇到一些英语修辞现象,可适当向学生介绍,不仅可以使课文讲解生动,加深学生印象,也可启发学生学习英语的兴趣。

现将散见在中学英语课本及其阅读训练中的修辞现象分类罗列出来:

一、明喻:是以两种具有相同特征的事物和现象进行对比,表明本体和喻体之间的相似关系,两者都在对比中出现(Simile is an expression which describes one thing by comparing it with another, usually using as or like, etc.)常用比喻词like (quick like lightning), as (as white as), as if, as though等,例如:

1、This elephant is like a snake as anybody can see.

这头象和任何人见到的一样像一条蛇

2、He looked as if he had just stepped out of my book of fairytales and had passed me like a spirit.

他看上去好像刚从我的童话故事书中走出来,像幽灵一样从我身旁走过去。

3、It has long leaves that sway in the wind like slim fingers reaching to touch something.

它那长长的叶子在风中摆动,好像伸出纤细的手指去触摸什么东西似的。

二、隐喻:这种比喻不通过比喻词进行,而是直接将用事物当作乙事物来描写,甲乙两事物之间的联系和相似之处是暗含的。(Metaphor is use of a phrase, which describes one thing by stating another with which it can be compared: the roses in her cheeks; the ocean of life; the curtain of night; all nature smiled.

        1. German guns and German planes rained down bombs, shells and bullets...

德国人的枪炮和飞机将炸弹、炮弹和子弹像暴雨一样倾泻下来。

2、The diamond department was the heart and center of the store.

钻石部是商店的心脏和核心。

Note: Simile says merely that one thing is like another, while Metaphor says that one thing is another.

三、提喻:又称举隅法,主要特点是局部代表全体,或以全体喻指部分,或以抽象代具体,或以具体代抽象。(Synecdoche is used to stand for the whole with its part or vise versa, usually they belong to the same category or concern each other.例如

1、The Great Wall was made not only of stones and earth, but of the flesh and blood of millions of men.

长城不仅是用石头和土建造的,而且是用几百万人的血和肉建成的。

句中的the flesh and blood喻为the great sacrifice”(巨大的牺牲)

2、“...saying that it was the most beautiful tongue in the world,...

……他说这是世界上最美的语言

这里用具体的tongue代替抽象的language”。

3Many eyes turned to a tall,20year black girl on the U.S. team.

很多人将眼光投向美国队一个高高的20岁的黑姑娘。

这里的many eyes代替了many persons”。 再如

breadfood; roofhouse; the armya soldier; ten sailsten ships

handsworkers; creatureman, etc.

四、拟人:这种修辞方法是把人类的特点、特性加于外界事物之上,使之人格化,以物拟人,以达到彼此交融,合二为一 Personification is used to personify a thing or its action. Eg: a shipshe/ Waves are singing as they are jumping to meet the thunder.

1、She may have tens of thousand of babies in one summer.(From Watching Ants)

一个夏天她可能生育成千上万个孩子。

这里用“she”和“babies”把蜜蜂比作人类妇女的生育

2、My only worry was that January would find me hunting for a job again.

我唯一担心的是,到了一月份我又得去找工作。

英语里常把“年”“月”“日”人格化,赋以生命,使人们读起来亲切生动。

1、    My blood froze. 我的血液都凝固了

2、    The wave was mountain high. 波浪有山高.

 3When I told our father about this, his heart burst.

当我将这件事告诉我们的父亲时,他的心几乎要迸出来。

4My heart almost stopped beating when I heard my daughter’s voice on the phone.

从电话里一听到我女儿的声音,我的心几乎停止跳动。

  再如: a thousand thanks; a person of no brains; a sea of faces

六、叠言/重提:这种修辞法是指在特定的语境中,将相同的结构,相同意义词组成句子重叠使用,以增强语气和力量。(Repetition is used to intensify the readers in order to stress something with the same word or phrase in the same member of the sentence.

1、It must be created by the blood and the work of all of us who believe in the future, who believe in man and his glorious man-made destiny.

它必须用我们这些对于未来,对于人类以及人类自己创造的伟大命运具有信心的人的鲜血和汗水去创造。

2、Because good technique in medicine and surgery means more quicklycured patients, less pain, less discomfort, less death, less disease and less deformity.

因为优良的医疗技术和外科手术意味着更快地治疗病人,更少痛苦,更少不安,更少死亡,更少疾病,更少残废。

七、借代是指两种不同事物并不相似,但又密不可分,因而常用其中一种事物名称代替另一种。(Metonymy is the way of expressing the part for the whole or the whole for the part which are different kinds of things, but of good relation.

1、Several years later, word came that Napoleon himself was coming to inspect them...

几年以后,他们听说拿破仑要亲自来视察他们。

word在这里代替了news, information”(消息、信息

2、Al spoke with his eyes,yes. 艾尔用眼睛说,“是的”。

“说”应该是嘴的功能,这里实际上是用眼神表达了“说话的意思”。

3. “The kettle boils.” means “The water in the kettle boils.”

4. “He always likes bottles.” means “He always likes drinking wine.”

“fur and feather” means “all beasts and birds”.

Shakespeare Shakespeare’s plays.

crownking, swordwar

八、双关:是以一个词或词组,用巧妙的办法同时把互不关联的两种含义结合起来,以取得一种诙谐有趣的效果。(Pun is  amusing use of a word or phrase with 2 meanings, phonetically or semantically.

1. Napoleon was astonished.Either you are mad, or I am,he declared.

Bothsir!cried the Swede proudly.

Both一词一语双关,既指拿破仑和这位士兵都是疯子,又指这位战士参加过拿破仑指挥的两次战役。

2. On Sunday they pray for you and on Monday, they prey on you.

3. I lost my proud Poplar and you your willow. Poplar and Willow soar to the Ninth Heaven.

九、拟声:是摹仿自然界中非语言的声音,其发音和所描写的事物的声音很相似,使语言显得生动,富有表现力。(Onomatopoeia means the accordance of sound with sense, such as “bang, cuckoo, whisper, hush, ping-pong” etc.

1、On the roof of the school house some pigeons were softly cooing.

在学校房屋的屋顶上一些鸽子正轻轻地咕咕叫着

2、She brought me into touch with everything that could be reached or feltsunlight, the rustling of silk, the noises of insects, the creaking of a door, the voice of a loved one.

她使我接触到所有够得着的或者感觉得到的东西,如阳光呀,丝绸摆动时的沙沙声呀,昆虫的叫声呀,开门的吱嗄声呀,亲人的说话声呀。

十、讽刺:是指用含蓄的褒义词语来表示其反面的意义,从而达到使本义更加幽默,更加讽刺的效果。(Irony is intentional use of words which are opposite to one’s real meaning or situation in order to be amusing or to show annoyance.

1. Well, of course, I knew that gentlemen like you carry only large notes.

啊,当然,我知道像你这样的先生只带大票子。

店员这句话意在讽刺这位穿破衣的顾客:像你这样的人怎么会有大票子呢?名为gentlemen实则beggar而已

2. A nice, pleasant sort of weather! (In fact, it’s bad.)

3. the wise men of Gorham (In fact they are foolish.)

十一、通感syntheses是指在某个感官所产生的感觉,转到另一个感官的心理感受。

Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested.

有些书是应当尝尝滋味的,有些书是应当吞下去的,有少数书是应当咀嚼和消化的。

书是“尝”不出味道的,也是不能“吃”下去将其“消化”掉的。这里把读书中的精读和泛读,阅读欣赏与吸收知识的感受,用味觉功能和消化功能来表示,心理感受是如此逼真和奇特。

十二、头韵法Alliteration在文句中有两个以上连结在一起的词或词组,其开头的音节有同样的字母或声音,以增强语言的节奏感。

How and why he had come to Princeton, New Jersey is a story of struggle, success, and sadness.

他如何和为什么来到新泽西州的普林斯顿是一个充满奋斗、成功和令人伤心的一段经历。

以上所列12种修辞格,是中学阶段较为常见的,尤其是以第一、二种最多。中学教师没有必要向学生讲述这么多,但也不可认为英语修辞是“高、精、尖”的东西,而不向学生作粗浅的介绍。修辞乃是语言的本体,不是语言的附属物。

 

 

(编辑:韩宏华)

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